Some Interesting Facts About Kidney Stones

*      Louis C. Herring Laboratory has analyzed over 4 million calculi, more than all other stone laboratories in the United States combined.


*      The largest known kidney stone weighed 1.36 kilograms.The smallest kidney stones are microscopic crystals; it is possible to analyze stones weighing less than 0.1 mg.


*      Kidney stones come in virtually any color; but most are yellow to brown.


*      The shape and size of the stone may tell something about how it was formed.


*      Most stones are formed and excreted singly.


*      Hippocrates (470/460 B.C.-380/360 B.C.) makes reference to kidney stones in the Hippocratic Oath as follows: "I will not cut persons labouring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work."


*      Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, lost the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 due wholly or in part from impaired kidney function resulting from kidney stone formation.


*      To date over 200 components have been found in calculi; however, the most common constituents of kidney stones are:


Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (Whewellite); CaC2O4 H2O

Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (Weddellite); CaC2O4 2H2O

Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (Struvite); MgNH4PO4 2H2O

Calcium Phosphate, Carbonate Form (Carbonate Apatite); Ca10(PO4)6-x(OH)2-y(CO3)x+y

Calcium Phosphate, Hydroxyl Form (Hydroxyl Apatite); Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2

Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (Brushite); CaHPO4 2H2O

Uric Acid; C5H4N4O3

Cystine; (SCH2CH(NH2)COOH)2

Sodium Acid Urate; NaHC5H2O3N4 H2O

Tricalcium Phosphate (Whitlockite); Ca3(PO4)2

Ammonium Acid Urate; NH4HC5H2O3N4 H2O

Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate Trihydrate (Newberyite); MgHPO4 3H2O


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